National Park, Wildlife Sanctuary and Conservation Reserve

  • Rajasthan is noted for its National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries. 
    • There are three national parks viz. the Keoladeo National Park of Bharatpur,  Ranthambore National Park of Sawai Madhopur, and Mukundara Hills National Park of Kota.
  • Ranthambore National Park and Sariska Wildlife Sanctuary are known worldwide for their tiger population and considered by wilderness lovers and photographers as the best places in India to spot tigers. 
  • Prominent among the wildlife sanctuaries are Mount Abu Sanctuary, Bhainsrod Garh Sanctuary,  Jaisamand Sanctuary, Kumbhalgarh Wildlife Sanctuary, Jawahar Sagar sanctuary and Sita Mata Wildlife Sanctuary.
  • Wildlife can be conserved in two methods:
    • Ex-Situ
      1. Conservation of animals done outside their natural habitat.
      2. Such as artificial environment like: Zoo, Animal Gene Bank, Deer Park
    • In-Situ
      1. Conservation of animals done in their own location or natural habitat.
      2. Such as: National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuary, Conservation reserves, Reserved area, etc

National Park

  • A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes, created and protected by national governments. Often it is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns.
  • Total number of National parks in Rajasthan is 3.

National Park(Rajasthan = 3)

  1. Ranthambore National Park, Sawai Madhopur
    1. Located: Sawai Madhopur
    2. Area: 1,334 sq. Km
    3. The national park is bounded by the river Banas in the north and Chambal in the south.
    4. Established in 1980.
    5. Main features:
      1. Former royal hunting ground
      2. Land of Tiger
      3. Trinetra Ganesh Mandir
      4. Padam Talao Lakes
      5. Ranthambore Fort
      6. Jogi Mahal
  1. Keoladeo Ghana National Park, Bharatpur
    1. Keoladeo is the name of an ancient Hindu temple of Lord Shiva, which stands in the park’s centre.
    2. Ghana means dense, and it refers to the lush, thick forest.
    3. Located: Bharatpur
    4. Area: 29 sq.Km
    5. It was declared a protected sanctuary in 1971. It is also a World Heritage Site.
    6. Keoladeo Ghana National Park is a human-made and man-managed wetland and one of the National parks of India.
    7. Main Feature:
      1. World Heritage site
      2. 1st Ramsar Site of Rajasthan
      3. Siberian Crane
      4. Ajan Dam
  1. Mukundara National Park, Kota
    2. Located: Chittor and Kota
    3. Area: about 200 sq.Km
    4. It consists of three wildlife sanctuaries: 
      1. Darrah Wildlife Sanctuary, 
      2. National Chambal Sanctuary, and 
      3. Jawahar Sagar Wildlife Sanctuary. 
    5. It is located in the Kathiawar-Gir dry deciduous forests.
    6. Main features: 
      1. Gagroni Parrot(or Alexandrine Parakeet) found here
        1. About Gagroni Parrot:
          1. Scientific name: Alexandrine Parakeet
          2. Also known as Hiraman Parrot
            1. You here name of this parrot in Padmavat story
          3. Speak like Human beings

Wildlife Sanctuary 

  1. A wildlife sanctuary is an area where animal habitats and their surroundings are protected from any sort of disturbance. 
  2. The capturing, killing and poaching of animals is strictly prohibited in these regions. They aim at providing a comfortable living to the animals.
  3. An international organisation, the International Union for Conservation of Nature(IUCN), and its World Commission on Protected Areas have defined Wildlife Sanctuary as its Category IV types of protected areas.
    1. Category IV protected areas usually help save or restore:
      1. flora species of international, national or local importance
      2. fauna species of international, national or local importance including resident or migratory fauna
      3. And habitats.
  4. Total number of Wildlife sanctuaries in Rajasthan is 27 according to economic-survey 2020-21.

Wildlife Sanctuary(Rajasthan)

  1. Mount Abu WS
  1. Located: Mount Abu(Sirohi)
  2. Mount Abu Wildlife Sanctuary is located in one of India’s oldest mountain ranges, the Aravalli range. It was declared a wildlife sanctuary in 1980.
  3. Mount Abu Wildlife Sanctuary spreads out into a plateau about 19 km long and 6 km wide. 
  4. In altitude, it ranges from 300 to 1,722 m at Guru Shikhar, the highest peak in Rajasthan. 
  5. The rocks are igneous, and due to the weathering effect of wind and water, large cavities are common in them.
  6. The sanctuary is in the Khathiar-Gir dry deciduous forest.
  1. Desert National Park
    1. Desert National Park is situated near the towns of Jaisalmer and Barmer.
    2. Desert National park was one of the largest national parks, covering an area of 3162sq.Km. 
    3. The Desert National Park is an excellent example of the ecosystem of the Thar Desert. Dunes form around 20% of the Park. 
    4. The prominent landform consists of craggy rocks and compact salt lake bottoms, intermedial areas and fixed dunes.
    5. Perhaps the Park’s greatest attraction is a bird called the great Indian bustard, a critically endangered species found only in India.
  1. Kumbhalgarh WS
    1. Kumbhalgarh Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the Rajsamand district.
    2. It surrounds the Kumbhalgarh fortress and covers an area of 610.528 sq. km.
    3. The sanctuary extends across the Aravalli Range, covering Rajsamand, Udaipur and Pali districts, ranging from 500 to 1,300 metres in elevation. 
    4. It is part of the  Khathiar-Gir dry deciduous forest.
    5. Kumbhalgarh Sanctuary was one of the places that considered for the reintroduction of the Asiatic lion.
      1. With the recent Supreme court of India judgment favouring the relocation of lions over that of cheetahs in India, a proposal was made to the Government of Rajasthan by wildlife conservationist Raza H. Tehsin in April 2009.
  1. Sariska Wildlife Sanctuary, Alwar
    1. It stretches over 881sq. Km comprised scrub-thorn dry forests, dry deciduous forests, grasslands, and rocky hills. 
    2. This area was a hunting preserve of the Alwar state and was declared a wildlife reserve in 1955.
    3. It was given the tiger reserve status, making it a part of India’s Project Tiger in 1978. 
    4. It is the first reserve in the world with successfully relocated tigers. It is a crucial biodiversity area in the Northern Aravalli leopard and wildlife corridor.
  1. Tal Chhapar WS
    1. Tal Chhapar Sanctuary is a sanctuary located in the Churu district.
    2. It is known for blackbucks and is also home to a variety of birds. 
    3. The sanctuary is 210 km from Jaipur on the Great Indian Desert’s fringe and situated on the road from Ratanpur to Sujangarh. 
    4. Tal Chhapar is a refuge of the blackbuck.
  1. National Chambal WS, Sawai Madhopur
    1. National Chambal Sanctuary, also called the National Chambal Gharial Wildlife Sanctuary, is a 5,400 km2 tri-state protected area in northern India to protect the Critically Endangered gharial, the red-crowned roof turtle and the Endangered Ganges river dolphin. 
    2. Located on the Chambal River near the tripoint of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, it was first declared in Madhya Pradesh in 1978 and now constitutes a long narrow eco-reserve co-administered by the three states. 
    3. Within the sanctuary, the pristine Chambal River cuts through mazes of ravines and hills with many sandy beaches.
    4. It is part of the Khathiar-Gir dry deciduous forest ecoregion.
  1. Sita Mata WS
    1. The Sita Mata Wildlife Sanctuary is a wildlife sanctuary situated in the Pratapgarh and Chittaurgarh districts of Rajasthan declared as a protected forest area by the Government of Rajasthan.
    2. It is a dense forest, with an area of 422.95 sq. Km, which is about 40% of the district’s total land area. 
    3. The land is undulating because of the confluence of three different formations.
      1. Malwa Plateau
      2. Vindhyachal Hills and 
      3. Aravali mountain ranges.
    4. The Asiatic lion, which used to occur in Rajasthan, is now confined to Gujarat. 
    5. Sita Mata Sanctuary had been considered a place to relocate some lions, but prey’s availability was deemed negligible. Also, the area was prone to human disturbance.
  1. Phulwari Ki Nal WS, Udaipur
    1. The Sanctuary is located in Udaipur, in the southern Aravalli Hills bordering the state of Gujarat.
    2. It was declared a Wildlife Sanctuary on 6 October 1983 by the Government of Rajasthan.
    3. The area of the Sanctuary is 511.41sq. Km, of which 365.92 km2 is Reserved Forest and 145.49sq. Km is Protected Forests.
    4. The sanctuary is spread over Kotra and Jhadol tehsils of the Udaipur district. 
    5. There are 134 villages present inside the sanctuary.
    6. Elevation of the terrain within the sanctuary varies from 600–900 m above MSL.
    7. The climate in the sanctuary is classified as semi-arid, with an annual rainfall of 730 mm.
  1. Todgarh-Raoli WS
    1. Todgarh Raoli Wildlife Sanctuary is spread over the  Ajmer, Pali, and Rajsamand districts of the state; it was established in 1983.
    2. It occupies about 495sq. Km of tropical deciduous forests and grassland. 
    3. Major wildlife includes leopard, wild boar, chinkara, common langur, sloth bears and Indian wolf. 
    4. The nearest central town is Ajmer, which is 105 km away. 
    5. Ajmer Junction Railway Station and Beawar Railway Station are the nearest railheads.
  1. Sajjangarh WS
    1. Sajjangarh Wildlife Sanctuary is located in Udaipur District in the southern Aravalli Hill. 
    2. The area of the sanctuary is 5.19sq. Km.
    3. The sanctuary is located entirely within Girwa Tehsil of the Udaipur district.
  1. Bassi WS
    1. Bassi Wildlife Sanctuary is a wildlife sanctuary near Bassi in Chittorgarh, 5 kilometres from the Bassi Fort Palace. 
    2. It covered an area of 15,290 hectares and was established in 1988. 
    3. The sanctuary is located on the western border of the Vindhyachal Ranges and includes the Bassi and Orai dams, which are part of the sanctuary.
    4. Antelope, wild boar, panther, mongoose and migratory birds inhabit the sanctuary.
  1. Bandh Bharatha WS
    1. Located in Bayana tehsil of Bharatpur & is about 50 km from Kailadevi NP.
    2. In 1866 Maharaja Jaswant Singh started constructing a dam on the Kakund river, which Maharaja Ram Singh finished in 1897. About 200sq. The Km of the area surrounding the dam was declared as WS in 1985.
  1. Bhainsrorgarh WS
    1. The sanctuary located in the Chittorgarh.
  1. Jaisamand WS
    1. Sanctuary is about 50sq. Km of the protected area surrounding the Jaisamand lake or Dhebar lake in Udaipur District.
    2. The sanctuary ecoregion is that of Kathiawar-Gir dry deciduous forests.
  1. Jamwa Ramgarh WS
    1. Located in Jaipur
    2. The sanctuary has an area of 252.79 sq. Km & acts as the buffer area of Ranthambore NP.
  1. Kailadevi WS
    1. Kailadevi WS is the northern extension of Ranthambore National Park.
    2. The sanctuary is famous among environmentalists and conservationists for the community initiated forest protection committees(referred to as kulhadi bandh panchayats) that are operational in the area.
  1. Nahargarh WS
    1. The sanctuary is located on the Jaipur-Delhi highway.
    2. The sanctuary encompasses an area of about 50sq.Km around the Nahargarh Fort, under the Aravalli range.
  1. Ramsagar WS
    1. Ramsagar lake forms an essential portion of the sanctuary.
  1. Kaisarbagh WS
    1. The sanctuary located in the Dholpur district
    2. The sanctuary has a dry deciduous thorny forest.
  1. Ramgarh Vishdhari WS
    1. Located in Bundi District.
    2. In 2019, the forest department was deliberating on upgrading the sanctuary to a tiger reserve.
      1. The state government advised declaring the sanctuary by the National Tiger Conservation Authority(NTCA) for final approval. 
      2. NTCA:
        1. The National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) was established in December 2005 following a Tiger Task Force recommendation, constituted by India’s prime minister for reorganising Project Tiger and the many Tiger Reserves in India.
  1. Sawai Madhopur WS
    1. Located in Sawai Madhopur
  1. Sawai Man Singh WS
    1. Sanctuary is situated about 9km from the (Kalibhat road) Sawai Madhopur City.
  1. Shergarh WS
    1. Sanctuary located in the Baran District.
  1. Van Vihar WS
    1. Sanctuary located in Dholpur District.

Conservation Reserve

  • The State Governments can declare conservation Reserves in any area owned by the Government, particularly the areas adjacent to National Parks and Sanctuaries and those that link one Protected Area with another. Such a declaration is made after having consultations with the local communities. 
  • Conservation Reserves are declared to protect landscapes, flora and fauna and their habitat. 
  • The rights of people living inside a Conservation Reserve are not affected.
  • Total number of Conservation reserves in Rajasthan is 14.
  • The areas declared as conservation reserves in the State of Rajasthan are:
Conservation ReservesAbout
Bansiyal Bagor CRDistrict: Khetri(Jhunjhunu)Wildlife: Leopard, blue bulls
Bir/Beed CRDistrict: JhunjhunuWildlife: Hare, Hedge-hog, Resident and Migratory Birds
Jawai Bandh CRDistrict: Pali
Ummed Ganj CRDistrict: Kota
Rotu CRDistrict: NagaurWildlife: Chinkara, Hare, Black Buck
Gogelao CRDistrict: NagaurWildlife: Chinkara, Hare, Black Buck
Shakambari CRDistrict: Sikar, JhunjhunuWildlife: Sambhar, Porcupine, Fox, wild Cat, Hyena
Gida Vishnoiyan CRDistrict: JodhpurWildlife: Chinkara, Black Buck, Wild boar
Sundhamata CRDistrict: Jalore, SirohiWildlife: Panther, Bear, Wolf, Chinkara
Jod beed Gadhwala CRDistrict: BikanerWildlife: Black Buck, Wild Cat, wild boar
Bisalpur CRDistrict: TonkWildlife: Black Buck, Wild Cat, wild boar
Jawai Leopard CRDistrict: Pali
Mansa Mata CRDistrict: Jhunjhunu
Bansiyal CRDistrict: Khetri(Jhunjhunu)

Zoo in Rajasthan

  1. Nahargarh(Jaipur)
    1. Established on: 2006
    2. Alligator breeding centre and Bird laboratory & Gidavan Breeding centre located in Jaipur.
  2. Kota
  3. Machia Safari(Jodhpur)
  4. Bikaner
  5. Udaipur

Deer Park

  1. Pushkar(Ajmer)
  2. Ashok(Jaipur)
  3. Sanjay(Jaipur)
  4. Amrita devi(Jodhpur)
  5. Machia(Jodhpur)
  6. Sajjangarh(Udaipur)
  7. Durg(Chittorgarh)