Climate of Rajasthan


  1. Climate is an important geographical factor that influences the natural elements and affects the economic and demographic aspects.
  2. The average weather conditions of a large area taken for a long period (for more than thirty years) is known as the climate of that region, whereas the sum of atmospheric conditions of a place at a particular time is called the weather of that place. 
  3. Temperature, atmospheric pressure, winds, rainfall, duration of the day etc., are the climate elements. 
  4. Temperature is the primary climate component because other climate elements are directly or indirectly associated with temperature. 
  5. The world has been divided into torrid, temperate and frigid zones based on temperature. 
  6. Similarly, rainfall patterns are the fundamental element in the determination of climatic regions. The humid, sub-humid and dry climatic categories are based on it. 
  7. The climate of Rajasthan varies from dry to sub-humid monsoon type. 
    1. The dry climate full of high daily and annual range of temperature, low rainfall, hot scorching Loo and sand storms is the climatic characteristics of western Rajasthan. 
    2. In contrast, comparatively low temperatures, a low range of temperature, and slightly higher rainfall are the characteristics of sub-humid climate to the east of the Aravallis. 
  8. Major factors that affect Rajasthan climate are:
    1. Latitudinal location
    2. Distance from the sea
    3. Altitude above sea level
    4. Location and direction of Aravallis
    5. Soil structure and vegetative cover 

Climatic Characteristics of Rajasthan

  1. Rajasthan enjoys a dry and sub-humid monsoon type of climate.
  2. The distribution of rainfall is highly unequal.
  3. The daily and annual range of temperature remains high due to the abundance of sand.
  4. The maximum daily temperature touches the mark of 49°C in the summer season.
  5. The hot, dry, and stormy Loo blows in summer.
  6. At some places, the temperature falls to freezing point in the winter season.
  7. Maximum rainfall occurs in the rainy season. The quantity of rain decreases from east to west and south to north.
  8. Droughts and famines are frequent here. It is a proverbial saying about the famine’s extension that the famine legs spread up to Pongal (a place of Bikaner). 
    1. The main body spreads Kotre (Marwar), stomach at Bikaner, a strayed occurrence at Jodhpur and permanent in Jaisalmer. 

Seasons of Rajasthan

Climatic Region

  1. Based on temperature and rainfall, Rajasthan can be divided into 4 major climatic regions.

Koppen Classification

  • Koppen’s climate classification is based on vegetation, taking into account the importance of temperature and rainfall.
  • Koppen’s formulas are in some way fine for the lower regions but prove unusable for higher regions.
  • According to Koppen classification, we can divide the climatic region of Rajasthan into 4 regions, namely:
    1. Aw
    2. Bshw
    3. BWhw
    4. Cwg
  1. Aw (Tropical wet and dry climate, also known as the savanna climate)
    1. District: Southern part of Dungarpur, Banswara, Jhalawar and Baran
    2. Vegetation: Savanna Grass, Deciduous trees of Monson type.
    3. Average Rainfall: 80-90 cm
    4. Summer temp: 30 to 34°C; and Winter: 12 to 15°C
  1. BShw(Semi-arid Steppe type)
    1. District: Barmer, Nagaur, Jalore, Jodhpur, Pali, Churu, Sikar, Jhunjhunu, south-east Hanumangarh
    2. Vegetation: Steppy Grass
    3. Average Rainfall: 20 – 40cm
    4. Summer temp: 32 to 35°C; Winter temp: 15 to 20°C
  1. BWhw(Hot desert type)
    1. District: North-western Jodhpur, Jaisalmer, Bikaner and Shri Ganganagar.
    2. Average Rainfall: 10-20cm
    3. Summer temp: average 35°C; Winter temp: 12 to 18°C
  1. Cwg(Monsoon type with dry winters)
    1. Region: South-eastern and East of Aravalli range(Udaipur, Dungarpur, Pratapgarh, Bhilwara, Rajsamanad, Chittorgarh, Bundi, Kota, Baran, Tonk, Ajmer, Sawai Madhopur, Karoli, Jaipur, Dausa, Alwar, Bharatpur, Dholpur)
    2. Average Rainfall: 60 – 80 cm

Agro-Climatic Zone(Rajasthan)

Area/ZoneTotal Area(million ha)District Covered
Hyper arid partial irrigated Zone(IC)7.70BikanerJaisalmerChuru
Arid western plain(IA)4.74Barmer Part of Jodhpur
Internal drainage dry zone(IIA)3.69NagaurSikarJhunjhunuPart of Churu
Sub-humid southern plains(IVA)3.36BhilwaraSirohiUdaipurChittorgarh
Transitional plain of Luni basin(IIB)3.00JalorePaliJodhpurPart of Sirohi
Semi-arid eastern plains(IIIA)2.96JaipurAjmerDausaTonk
Flood prone eastern plain(IIIB)2.77AlwarDholpurBharatpurKaroliSawai Madhopur
Humid south-eastern plain(IVB)2.70KotaJhalawarBundiBaran
Irrigated north-western plain(IB)2.10Sri GanganagarHanumangarh
Humid southern plains(IVB)1.72DungarpurUdaipurBanswaraChittorgarh